Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival by Vladimir Keilis Borok: Summary | Questions and Answers | Class 11 English

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Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival by Vladimir Keilis Borok: Summary | Questions and Answers | Class 11 English
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Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival by Vladimir Keilis Borok: Summary | Questions and Answers | Class 11 English


Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival by Vladimir Keilis Borok



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This essay, "Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind's Survival" has been written by Russian mathematical geophysicist and seismologist Vladimir Keilis-Borok. This essay has presented facts related to science and its outstanding contribution to the lives of people around the world. This essay has shown how scientists across the globe rise above their national identities to find solutions to common problems among nations. According to him, science is humanity's indispensable guardian and caretaker.




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DETAILED SUMMARY

Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind Survival by Vladimir Keillis-Borok

This essay, "Scientific Research is a Token of Humanity's Survival" has been written by Russian mathematical geophysicist and seismologist Vladimir Keilis-Borok. This essay has presented facts related to science and its outstanding contribution to the lives of people around the world. This essay has shown how scientists across the globe rise above their national identities to find solutions to common problems among nations. The speaker of this essay is the writer himself. Here, we find him advocating science, saying that science is the indispensable guardian and caretaker of humankind.

The writer starts with the profession of a scientist, saying that scientists get lower earnings than businessmen, lawyers, and doctors. Despite this fact, some people still decide to be scientists because they cannot live without science. According to the writer, science is an exciting adventure where the major reward comes from the discovery itself. Instead of big money, the scientist gets honours and promotions through his or her discoveries. A scientist gets less money than lawyers, doctors, and businessmen but enjoys freedom, camaraderie, and independence.

Next, the writer talks about his experience during the Cold War with his readers. The writer says that during 1960, while he was doing his research on seismic waves (earth tremors) in the capital city of Moscow, he was summoned by the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The President showed him a letter from Geneva related to a meeting in Geneva about nuclear weapons. An American scientist, Fran Press, called him to Geneva to attend the discussion. As a result, the writer found himself in Geneva.

During that time, the fear of annihilation by nuclear weapons was so high. People were living under threat. The Cold War was at its height in 1960. The superpower nations, such as Russia (the Soviet Union), America, and England, had lots of nuclear weapons. They could easily destroy other nations in their first strike using nuclear weapons. Before the Geneva Summit, for the sake of the survival of humanity, an important decision was taken by the politicians of three powerful nations. The three nuclear powers were willing to come to an agreement banning the new nuclear weapons test. That episode was the atmosphere of the Cold War, in which scientists from opposite sides had to come to an understanding to promote world peace and prevent the use of nuclear weapons. That episode taught the writer that science is the hope of survival and well-being for all.


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The nuclear powers signed an agreement to stop the testing of new nuclear weapons. But they faced the problem that if anyone violated the agreement by secret underground testing of nuclear weapons, how could they (other powers) detect that test? For that, the technical experts (scientists) were summoned to solve the problem that arose.

As a seismologist, the writer had theoretical knowledge of seismic waves. His theoretical knowledge had a direct application in the area of the survival of humankind. He had very good knowledge about the tremors of underground nuclear explosions as well as tremors produced by earthquakes. With his knowledge, the writer would easily know the difference between the two different tremors.

According to the writer, scientists are the most practical people in the world. This could be seen in new technologies and new brands in the industry, from defence to entertainment. The scientists invent antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, the green revolution, genetic forensic diagnosis, etc. The basic knowledge of science always supports people in their lives.

According to the writer, the survival of our civilization is threatened by natural and man-made disasters. Among them are earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social crises. A massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal and an outburst of mass violence are cited by the writer as man-made disasters. 

Science is our indispensable guardian and caretaker because it is the only science that can ensure that we move with time safely.

For the survival of humankind, countries had signed a treaty not to test nuclear weapons secretly. But science and its scientists ensured humankind's survival. It is the only science that can differentiate between the tremors caused by nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes. It is science that can give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits, and efficient defence from terrorism.

The hope of science for the survival of mankind has greater significance as well. In the present scenario, the safety of mankind is threatened by both natural and man-made disasters. Be it a tsunami or terrorism, money alone cannot tackle the problem. Scientific solutions are the only hope. Thus, the writer has umpteen reasons to conclude that science is the hope of survival.


MAIN POINTS TO REMEMBER

☆  Scientists cannot live without science, though they get fewer earnings.

☆  They enjoy freedom, camaraderie, and independence.

☆  For scientists, the discovery itself is a major reward.

☆  The writer was summoned to Geneva because an American scientist quoted the writer's work while arguing with Moscow experts.

☆  Before Geneva's Summit, the politicians of three powerful countries were willing to agree to ban new nuclear weapons tests.

☆  They faced the problem of a violation of the ban agreement. A team of technical experts was summoned to detect secret underground tests of nuclear weapons.

☆  As a seismologist, the writer had theoretical knowledge that had a direct application in the area of the survival of mankind. The writer got the idea about the real importance of science, scientists, and scientific tools for the welfare of mankind's survival.

☆  The writer could easily differentiate between the two different tremors. as natural and man-made tremors.

☆  Natural disasters are earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social crises.

☆  Man-made disasters are a massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal, an outburst of mass violence, war, etc.

☆  Scientists are the most practical people in the world. It can be seen through their different inventions.

☆  Knowledge of basic science always supports people from different sectors.

☆  Science is the only one that can ensure humankind's safety and survival.

☆  Scientific research is a token of humankind's survival. Science is the indispensable guardian and caretaker of humankind's survival.

☆  Science should be used humanly without any bad intentions.


SHORT SUMMARY

Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind Survival by Vladimir Keillis-Borok

This essay, "Scientific Research is a Token of Humanity's Survival, has been written by Vladimir Keilis-Borok. In this essay, the writer presents the importance of science and its inventions for the welfare of humankind. According to the writer, science is an indispensable guardian and caretaker of humankind.


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The writer says that scientists cannot live without science, though they get fewer earnings. They enjoy freedom, camaraderie, and independence. For scientists, the discovery itself is a major reward.

The writer has informed us that he was summoned to Geneva because an American scientist quoted the writer's work while arguing with Moscow experts.

Before Geneva's Summit, the politicians of three powerful countries were willing to agree to ban new nuclear weapons tests.

They faced the problem of a violation of the ban agreement. A team of technical experts was summoned to detect a secret underground test of nuclear weapons.

As a seismologist, the writer had theoretical knowledge that had a direct application in the area of the survival of mankind. The writer got the idea about the real importance of science, scientists, and scientific tools for the welfare of mankind's survival.

The writer could easily differentiate between the two different tremors. natural and man-made tremors. Natural disasters are earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social crises. Man-made disasters are a massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal, an outburst of mass violence, war, etc.

Scientists are the most practical people in the world. It can be seen through their different inventions. Knowledge of basic science always supports people from different sectors.

Science is the only one that can ensure humankind's safety and survival. Scientific research is a token of humankind's survival. Science is the indispensable guardian and caretaker of humankind's survival. Science should be used humanly, without any bad intentions.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Scientific Research is a Token of Humankind Survival by Vladimir Keillis-Borok


BEFORE YOU READ

a. What is science? What do the scientists do?

Answer:

Science is the search and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social worlds, following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Scientists experiment with various new things related to this world as well as life.


b. We are all scientists. The nature of science can be captured to our ordinary experiences. Share your scientific experiences that you have got in your everyday life.

Answer:

Science is the systematic application of various things in our daily lives. Science is always with us. Our lives and our different acts are connected with science, directly or indirectly. In my case, I do various things in my daily life. My different tasks are connected to science. Everything should be done systematically, using different methods. In every act of my life, scientific methods are applied, knowingly or unknowingly.


UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT

a. What does a scientist get instead of big money?

Answer:

Scientists get rewards like honours and promotions instead of big money. He or she gets these rewards through his or her discoveries.


b. What was the problem that the nuclear powers had faced? 

Answer:

The nuclear powers had signed an agreement to stop the testing of nuclear weapons. But they had faced the problem that if anyone violated the agreement by secret underground testing of nuclear weapons, how would they detect that test.


c. In which area did Keilis Borok's theoretical knowledge have a direct application?

Answer:

Keilis Borok's theoretical knowledge had a direct application in the area of human survival. Underground nuclear explosions produce earth tremors like those generated by earthquakes. With his knowledge, the author would know the difference between the two different tremors.


d. What was the important decision that the politicians took before Geneva Summit?

Answer:

Before the Geneva Summit, the politicians took the important decision to ban the nuclear weapons test. The decision was made with hope for the survival of humanity. According to them, after banning nuclear tests, there would be no competition for developing nuclear weapons.


e. What are the natural and man-made disasters as mentioned by the author?

Answer:

The natural disasters mentioned by the author are earthquakes, self-inflicted destruction of megacities, environmental catastrophes, and economic and social crises, whereas a massive release of radioactivity from nuclear waste disposal, an outburst of mass violence, war, etc. are man-made disasters.


 REFERENCE TO THE CONTEXT

a. The professional addressed as ‘you’ in the sentence “If you are clever, why are you so poor?” refers to a… 

i. lawyer ii. doctor iii. scientist iv. businessman. Justify your choice.

Answer:

It refers to a scientist. Scientists are clever and brilliant in their minds. Their earnings are lower than those of other professionals, such as lawyers, doctors, and businessmen. But they enjoy freedom, camaraderie, and independence. The writer intends to show that although scientists are very wise, their wisdom does not generally help them generate wealth. Thus, scientists are generally wise but not wealthy.


b. The writer says, “I found myself in Geneva.” What does it express?

Answer:

It expresses the surprise of the writer. He was summoned all of a sudden to attend the meeting related to nuclear weapons in Geneva. His work was quoted by an American scientist, Frank Press, while arguing with Moscow experts.


c. Are the following statements true? Why or why not? Discuss with your partner.

i. Money is more powerful than intellectual resources.

Answer:

No, this statement isn't right. Money is momentary, whereas intellectual resources keep on providing fine results. There isn't any guarantee of money. Money creates a lot of problems. But intellectual resources can lead anyone towards success and perfection. 


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ii. Intellectual resources help the survival of mankind.

Answer:

Yes, this statement is right. Intellectual resources are only hopes with the help of which mankind is secured. Due to intellectual resources, mankind has gotten relief from diseases, safety from terrorism, a healthy life, and entertainment.


iii. Basic research is a way of stalling disasters.

Answer:

Yes, this statement is right. People in the world are living their lives securely, believing in scientific research. Scientists keep on studying ecological changes and alerting mankind about possible dangers from disasters. Due to their research-based information, people are secure.


d. How does the essayist justify that scientific research is humankind’s survival?

Answer:

The essayist justifies that scientific research is humankind's survival by presenting his opinions in favour of science and its research-based inventions. According to him, science is the indispensable guardian and caretaker of humankind's survival. Scientific research ensures humankind's survival. Science and its researchers can only find solutions related to the problems of humans' lives. It is science that can give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits, medicines, and efficient defences from terrorism. Scientific research can easily detect upcoming disasters and save humankind. It is the only science that can ensure that we are moving forward safely. Thus, the writer has umpteen reasons to conclude that scientific research is the hope of humankind's survival.


e. What can be the purpose of the essayist of using quotations in the essay?

Answer:

The purpose of the essayist using quotations in the essay is to make all his readers clear about the main points that he wants to deliver. In his essay, the essayist keeps on using quotations from legends so that he can support his ideas.


f. Discuss and illustrate the writer’s stand that scientists are the most practical people in the world.

Answer:

The writer’s stand here in this essay is that scientists are the most practical people in the world. According to him, their practical lives could be seen in new technologies and new brands of the industry, from defence to entertainment. The scientists invent antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, modes of transport, the green revolution, genetic forensic diagnosis, etc. This proves that scientists are the most practical people.


REFERENCE BEYOND THE TEXT

a. Everyone lives under the fear of annihilation by nuclear weapons. Explain this statement.

Answer:

Here in this line, the essayist is informing all his readers about the critical situation of the Cold War during 1960. The situation was quite terrifying. The superpower nations, such as the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, had more than enough nuclear bombs to destroy the other nations in their first strike. Therefore, every man, woman, and child on earth lived under the threat of annihilation by nuclear weapons. These superpowers were willing to agree to face this threat.


b. The essayist says ‘While there is science, there is the hope of survival and wellbeing for all of us.’ Explain it.

Answer:

The essayist says, ‘While there is science, there is hope of survival and wellbeing for all of us. According to the essayist, science is our indispensable guardian and caretaker because it is the only science that can ensure that we are moving with time safely.


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For the survival of humankind, countries had signed a treaty not to test nuclear weapons secretly. But science and its scientists ensured humankind's survival. It is the only science that can differentiate between the tremors caused by nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes. It is science that can give us new sources of energy, new mineral deposits, and efficient defence from terrorism. The hope of science for the survival of mankind has greater significance as well. In the present scenario, the safety of mankind is threatened by both natural and man-made disasters. Be it a tsunami or terrorism, money alone cannot tackle the problem. Scientific solutions are the only hope. Thus, the writer has umpteen reasons to conclude that science is the hope of survival.


c. Is science a blessing or a curse? Write an essay on it.

Answer:

Science is the search and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social worlds, following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Scientists experiment with various new things related to this world as well as life. Science can be regarded as both a blessing and a curse. The most important aspect of science is its application. Science has done various tasks for the welfare of mankind, and it has even had various negative impacts on mankind in this world. The scientists invent antibiotics, electronics, biotechnology, synthetic fibres, the green revolution, genetic forensic diagnosis, etc. All these inventions have brought development to humans' lives. The basic knowledge of science always supports people in their lives. Due to science and its inventions, most people are dying out in the present time too. Different kinds of weapons are the outcome of science itself. Science shouldn't be used against humanity. It should be used for the welfare of humanity. Thus, science should be used humanely without any bad intentions.



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