Unit 16 Critical Thinking | What Is the Soul | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt



Unit 16 Critical Thinking | What Is the Soul | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt
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Unit 16 Critical Thinking | What Is the Soul | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt

Critical Thinking: What is the Soul?


a. Which one do you think is primary: body or soul? Why?


I think the body is primary because I feel my body through my senses, but the soul is just a mere word for me, which I have heard about many times but never seen.

b. “A circle has no beginning”? Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Explain. 


Yes, I agree with this statement. A circle has no beginning, middle, or end. That's why it is called infinity. It is endless and eternal.


A. The words in the crossword puzzle are from the text. Find them from the text to solve thee puzzle based on the meaning clues given below.

1. unquestionable, impossible to doubt 》indubitable

2. never done or known before 》unprecedented

3. emergence or origination 》emanation

4. obviously or clearly 》 evidently

5. impossible to achieve or overcome 》insuperable

6. moved with a violent, irregular action 》agitated

7. appropriate or suitable 》apt

8. force back 》repel

9. conservative 》 orthodox

10. up to now 》 hitherto

B. Find the words from the text that mean the following.

a. misleading or illusionary (d..............)



b. in a natural state; not yet processed or refined (c.............)



c. a mystical horse like animal with a single straight horn projecting from its forehead (u...........)



d. never dying or decaying (i................)



e. come to an end; stop (c.............)



f. to activate or put into motion (a..............)




Answer these questions.

a. What's the difference between the body and the soul?


The difference between the body and the soul is that the body is in time and space (seen), but the soul is in time only (unseen). Here, the body and the soul are two different aspects, both physical and spiritual.

b. What do you understand by the psychologists' saying that there is no such thing as mind?


By the psychologists' saying that there is no such thing as a mind, I understand that the psychologists believe that there is no existence of a mind.

c. How can a mental activity be reduced to a physical activity?


A mental activity can be reduced to a physical activity with the help of body functions. Mental activities can be reduced at the time when the body starts functioning, in comparison to mental activities. As the body functions much, the mind gets much rest.

d. How are mind and body related?


Both mind and body are related, as the mind is an emanation (source) of the body, whereas the body is an invention of the mind. These two aspects are merely convenient ways of organising events.

e. What is the relation between mind and memory? Does memory survive a person's death?


The relationship between the mind and memory is that memory is the most essential characteristic of the mind. No, memory doesn't survive a person's death. Memory is connected with a certain kind of brain structure. When a death occurs, this structure also decays with it, and memory also stops functioning.

f. How is our power on the earth's surface entirely dependent upon the sun?


Our power on the earth's surface is entirely dependent upon the sun, as it provides energy to all living creatures. The sun's heat energy has maintained lives as well as food items for all.


a. Do you believe that soul really exists? Write your arguments in support of your answer.


Yes, I believe that the soul really exists. People all over the world hold strong faith in the existence of God and his divinity. This faith is quite strong and is mostly seen in all religions. All these established religions speak about God's greatness along with the existence of various things. In most religious books, there is mention of the human soul and even afterlife stories. Though no one has seen the soul through their naked eyes, they believe in the existence of the soul and even various supernatural powers. Their keen faith in religion has made them believe in these unbelievable forces. I'm also a Hindu and quite devoted to my religion. In Hindu mythology, there are various unbelievable things mentioned that are beyond our imagination. The term "God" is used by worldly people to refer to the most powerful being on this planet. God is considered to be a sacred soul who is beyond all the living beings on this planet. God is also referred to as the creator of the entire universe.

There are many debates regarding these questions. Even many popular dictionaries explain their meanings. The soul is defined as the spirit or essence of a person, usually thought to consist of one's thoughts and personality. Often believed to live on after the person's death. The soul is an invisible entity but remains on this planet. According to religious books, after the death of a person, a soul gets separated from the body. It keeps on moving on this planet. The soul gets tested many times and finally gets placed in heaven or hell. The soul of the person should be cleaned and purified to reach heaven. Being a religious guy, I believe in the existence of the soul, though I haven't seen it in reality.

b. If you want to change your body, you first have to change your mind. Discuss.


All the activities of human beings spread over the entire life span. All these activities are governed by the mind. The subtle, as well as imperceptible, thoughts and feelings arising in the mind determine the nature and direction of human actions.

The mind is one of the most powerful organs in the human body. It regulates all the functions of all other organs. When our minds are unstable or don't function properly, they affect the whole functioning of our bodies. Being both physically and emotionally fit is the key to success in all aspects of life. All human beings need to be aware of the consequences of mental illness. All people must give utmost importance to keeping their minds healthy. They should be careful about their minds, just as they are conscious of keeping their physical bodies healthy.

By fitness of the mind, we refer to a state of psychological well-being. It reflects a positive sense of how we feel, think, and act, thereby improving our ability to enjoy life. It contributes to the inner capacity for self-determination. It is an active, positive word that casts off any negative thoughts that come to mind. This term "mental fitness" is increasingly being used by psychologists, mental health practitioners, schools, organisations, and the general population to denote logical thinking, clear comprehension, and reasoning ability.

We can't separate mental and physical health from each other. Both are really very important. A person is considered fit and healthy if his or her mental and physical health are balanced and function properly. Thus, everyone needs to change their minds first. If our minds function properly, we find automatic changes in our bodies. Everyone in this world has to work towards achieving a balance between mental and physical well-being and get the necessary help when either of them becomes unsteady.


Write critically on the given topics. 

a. The existence of God


According to the different religions, religious leaders, and people in the world, the existence of God is understood or believed to be a reality. They don't compromise on this statement. However, I think that the reality of the judgements that believers make about God's existence considerably varies and divides into different classes. All these religious claims depend on the understanding and beliefs of the people. Religious leaders are quite sure about their sources of information about the existence of God. If anyone tries to go against them or claim a question about the existence of the almighty God, they start showing their aggression against them. For these religious leaders, the existence of God is right, and God is the only hope for human beings' survival.

As in my case too, whenever I feel myself guilty, I ask for excuses from God. Though I haven't seen God, the fear of God always hovers in my mind. The concept of God always prevents me from doing the wrong things. The sense of God makes me walk on the paths of moral standards. My parents taught me religious things while I was a child. I got to know about our gods in different forms. I worship God every single day and have keen faith in the existence of God. For me, God is the most powerful entity who is both the creator and protector of the entire world and all living beings. God knows everything and goes beyond everything. God is present everywhere. I don't have any proof of God's existence, but I believe in it.

Here in this world, people debate the existence of the almighty God. There is no proof behind God's existence, but people have keen faith in his existence. The majority of people are on the side of the existence of God, as most people in the world are connected with religions. Disbelievers and non-religious people are ready to die but not ready to accept the existence of God. Most people in the world feel good when they hear about the greatness of God. At a time of crisis in humanity, people try to ask for help from the almighty God. For them, God is the only hope for the well-being of human beings.

b. Religion influences ethics and morality


By religion, we mean a belief in a spiritual or metaphysical reality (often including at least one deity), accompanied by practices or rituals pertaining to the belief. Religion is the main source that forms a moral foundation for billions of people throughout the world. Being religious or having a belief in God is necessary to be moral and have good values in life. Religion influences the ethics and morality of the people.

In the present world, most people are connected to religions. From birth to death, people involve themselves in religious activities. All these three terms—religion, ethics, and morality—move together. Religion and ethical qualities are firmly associated with one another.

Religion can make people feel good about themselves by making them feel that they are part of a larger culture. The self-esteem of all religious people is very high, and they are mentally strong too. Religion promotes good morals and ethics. It always teaches us knowledge regarding forgiveness. It instills internal courage to do the right things in life.

Religion keeps people within moral and ethnic bounds. It inculcates strong beliefs about virtue, morality, fear of God, sin, and karma, or divine justice, in people. If a large number of people still believe in good values and virtue, it is because they believe in the rule of God and the promise of the scriptures. Every religion teaches its followers to cultivate virtue, follow the law of God, and lead their lives righteously. Thus, religions are the real moral guardians of the world. Religions ensure that the world does not fall into chaos and moral confusion. In the absence of religions, it will be difficult for people to keep their faith in the virtue of righteous living. Thus, religion influences morality and ethics. It always promotes virtue, morality, and good values.



A. Notice the use of used to in the following text.

I was a young girl in the 1960s. My friends and I used to do a lot of things which shocked our parents. We used to do things our mothers never did. We used to cut our hair, we used to wear short skirts. We used to sing songs but did not use to dance. 

Used to + infinitive' is used to talk about a repeated action, state or situation in the past which has now changed.

Now, rewrite the following sentences using ‘used to’. You can make an affirmative/ negative statement or a question.

a. I/live in a flat when I was a child.


I used to live in a flat when I was a child

b. She/love eating chocolate but now she hates it.


She used to love eating chocolate but now she hates it.

c. He/go to fishing in the summer?


Did he use to go fishing in the summer?

d. My sister/play tennis when she was at school.


My sister used to play tennis when she was at school.

e. He/play football every weekend?


Did he use to play football every weekend?

f. My grandfather/speak five languages.


My grandfather used to speak five languages.

g. I/not hate school from the beginning.


I did not use to hate school from the beginning.

h. You/live in Kathmandu?


Did you use to live in Kathmandu?

i. He/play Dandibiyo when he was a small child.


He used to play Dandibiyo when he was a small child.

j. She/wear a frock when she was small but nowadays she wears jeans.


She used to wear a frock when she was small but nowadays she wears jeans.





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