Unit 15 War and Peace | Shall there be Peace | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt

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Unit 15 War and Peace | Shall there be Peace | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt
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Unit 15 War and Peace | Shall there be Peace | Language Development Class 11| Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt


War and Peace: Shall There be Peace?


WAYS WITH WORDS

A. Match the words on the left side with their meanings on the right.

Answer:

a. proclaim = v. declare

b. unswerving = iv. steady or constant

c. magnanimous = i. generous or forgiving

d. trample = x. crush

e. tremendous = vii. huge

f. inevitable = ix. unavoidable

g. dire = iii. dreadful

h. anguish = ii. distress

i. impending = vi. upcoming

j. ruthless = viii. pitiless


B. Fill in the blanks with the suitable word from the list given.

[appalling, sanguine, slaughter, absurdity, futility, reluctance, bestir]

a. The soldiers suffer ......... injuries during the attack.

Answer:

The soldiers suffer appalling injuries during the attack.


b. She is ......... about prospects for the economic development of the country.

Answer:

She is sanguine about prospects for the economic development of the country.


c. Innocent people get unexpected ........ in the war.

Answer:

Innocent people get unexpected slaughter in the war.


d. The crowd laughed at the ....... of the singer's behaviour.

Answer:

The crowd laughed at the absurdity of the singer's behaviour.


e. The intellectuals should be worried about the horror and ........... of war.

Answer:

The intellectuals should be worried about the horror and futility of war.


f. He sensed her.......... to continue the work.

Answer:

He sensed her reluctance to continue the work.


g. They ........ themselves at the first light of morning.

Answer:

They bestir themselves at the first light of morning.


COMPREHENSION 

Answer these questions:

a. Why was the Italian Socialist Mergari treated like a madman?

Answer:

Italian Socialist Mergari was treated like a madman because he had spoken a few natural and human words in the Italian chamber.


b. Can political aims be attained by the criminal instrumentality of war? If yes, how?

Answer:

Yes, political aims can be attained through the criminal instrumentality of war. Political leaders have excellent oratory skills. They can easily divert people's minds by delivering powerful words and phrases. They can easily instill a sense of nationalism in people's minds. They make people blind supporters, brainwashing their minds, and thus they become ready to die for the nation.


c. Which hopes and plans were said to be mutually contradictory?

Answer: 

The hopes of peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk between Germany and Russia and the plans of France to attack Germany are said to be mutually contradictory.


d. What can be the sacred duty of every man of goodwill on earth?

Answer:

The sacred duty of every man of goodwill on earth is not to sheathe ourselves in indifference and let things take their course, but to do our utmost to prevent the final catastrophe.


e. Is it good to tacitly accept war as an instrument of politics? If not, what else should be done?

Answer:

No, it is not good to tacitly accept war as an instrument of politics. Instead of war, we must give enough reasons for peace. Only a few people want war. We have to show our contentment and hatred to those who support the concept of war.


f. How can we stop the war in the world?

Answer:

We can stop the war in the world. If we want to be honest, we should devote ourselves exclusively for a little while to clearing away the obstacles and barriers to peace. For this, we have to be serious and determined.


g. What is the main message of this essay?

Answer:

The main message of this essay is that peace is very important and inevitable for the wellbeing of mankind. War can be stopped with mankind's serious efforts.


CRITICAL THINKING

a. Are warmongers the greatest enemies for peace? What do you want to suggest to them?

Answer:

Yes, warmongers are the greatest enemies of peace. The term 'warmongers' refers to those profit-seekers who encourage or advocate revenge, aggression, enmity, and war. They always try their best to create upheavals as well as destruction. They are just against the concepts of peace and humanity. They believe in creating conflicts every time. Due to warmongers, the world has faced numerous losses up until now. Warmongers are those who keep on making great conspiracies for great attacks or wars. They have different mentalities regarding their view of the world and its people. They feel good to see a massacre as well as a bloody environment. They always try their best to harm human existence. For them, the concept of humanity is just a mere word. They have different issues regarding their religion, country, and groups. Their love for war invites a dark future for humans' existence. These warmongers are the sole cause behind all the unfortunate events in the world.

I want to suggest to all these warmongers that things will reverse sooner. The pain that you have provided to numerous people will be experienced by you too. Bad deeds are always punished. Your decisions and supporting acts for war will surely make you feel regret one day. The pain and suffering of injured people, the cries of victims, the curses of humanity, etc. will never allow you to survive peacefully. Try to stop all your nonsensical ideas against humanity. Spread love and peace among humans so that they can have peaceful and harmonious lives.


b. The Nobel Prize Winner American novelist John Steinbeck (1902-1968) once said, “All war is a symptom of man's failure as a thinking animal.” Do you agree with the novelist? Why?

Answer:

"All war is a symptom of man's failure as a thinking animal." Yes, I completely agree with this statement. War is considered the worst thing in the world. It doesn't help anyone, but it destroys everything. Those countries that engage themselves in war have to bear enormous economic losses. They don't care about their wins and losses but fight blindly for their egos. There is no solution to any kind of war. War only brings a dark future for all. The two most unfortunate and unforgettable events on this planet are both destructive: World War I and World War II. Those wars only brought destruction to human lives. The world and its people suffered much during that time.

Wars are the consequence of the foolishness and rage of human beings. Those two genocides taught a serious lesson to the rest of humanity. Human beings have learned the futility of war throughout history. Among both wars, the Second World War was considered the most dreadful war in human history. Thousands of people lost their lives due to that devastating war. The fall of atomic weapons on Japanese lands such as Nagasaki and Hiroshima on August 6 and 9, 1945, snatched away 140,000 people's lives.

People in the world after the destructive war condemned the use of nuclear weapons and their usage.

When the rest of the world saw the destruction, they all condemned the use of nuclear weapons. All felt bad after seeing the bad impacts of nuclear weapons. Those who used to advocate nuclear weapons started condemning their usage in the battle. The most threatening aspect of nuclear weapons is their profusion. They are everywhere. In the present time too, many nations have bombs in their arsenals that are hundreds of times more powerful than the ones used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which were destroyed by the United States in 1945. The future of the world is in danger.

Thus, wars are not good at all. They are just against humanity. Wars are the result of human barbarism and withdrawal. Civilised people sit down to have a meal together and settle their differences quietly. As a result of the conflict, it can be said that human thinking has failed.


c. Does any war end all wars and bring lasting peace to the world? Discuss.

Answer:

No, any war doesn't end all wars and bring lasting peace to the world. War always creates disorders. It only brings destruction and chaos.

Any state of war is mainly created when there are disagreements. Disagreements over ideas are the major contributing factors to conflict.

War is the most recognisably terrible thing on earth. It does not provide any benefit to the people. This only results in the loss of human life and resources. Like the losing country, both the winning countries cause significant accidents and disasters.

Sometimes conflict also helps to bring about peace, but the price of such peace is the death and destruction it causes. The First and Second World Wars in the past have left behind devastation that can't be repaired.

Besides war, there are other means to bring about peace. There are many other options, such as negotiating a solution that is fair for all. There are many alternative ways to bring about peace rather than choosing war. We can initiate mutual coordination and peace settlements between the warring countries. A mutually beneficial arrangement will continue. Some conditions will be accepted by a gathering and some by others.

Understanding and agreement are the two measures behind any solution. Egos are really dangerous, which leads to wars. Although we are separated by religion, gender, shaming, and the boundaries between our nations, we have a place with humanity. We should treat each other like brothers and sisters and help each other. Without a doubt, there will be contradictions, which must be resolved calmly.

Thus, wars should be avoided for the sake of humanity. Peaceful ways of negotiating should be sought out for lasting peace in the world.


d. Why do you think countries go in wars even though they have their own boundaries? 

Answer:

I think countries go into war even though they have their own boundaries for various reasons regarding their acts. These reasons may be egos, jealousy, or something else like these. Big and powerful countries always try to dominate their smaller and less powerful neighbouring countries. They try to be showy most of the time, being generous to others. But they seek their benefits in reality. They invade the lands of their neighbouring countries quite stealthily. They offer helpful hands to their neighbouring countries and even loot them. These acts by powerful countries always invite bad consequences. Due to these acts, terrorism increases, and bad things happen. It leads nations towards enmity.

There are lots of countries in the world that feel envious of the progress of their neighbouring countries. Though they have their own boundaries, they become restless if they see the development of their neighbouring countries. They start their bad strategies through political means to create upheaval in the next countries. Big and powerful countries in the world are usually seen as creating disorders in small and powerless countries. They always try to play dirty politics in other countries. They have problems with other countries' relationships. They always react badly if their neighbouring countries build up fine relationships with other big countries.

Thus, war can take place at any time. These activities lead to a rise in enmity between citizens of the countries. At this time, wars take place and have disastrous consequences.


WRITING

Write essays in about 500 words on the following topics.

a. War and peace

Answer:

                       War and Peace 

War is regarded as a terrible thing. It refers to an armed battle between countries. War causes great suffering for all. It is against all the living beings on this planet. It invites a dark future for all. Due to war, humanity has suffered a lot. War never sees nations, people, relationships, etc. It only causes destruction and provides pain to all.

Wars break out for various reasons. Some wars take place between countries or nations and within a nation. The latter is generally referred to as a civil war and may result from differences on the basis of caste, religion, or socioeconomic dissatisfaction. Whether there are wars between countries (interstate) or between different classes of communities within the country, the effects are very harmful.

During wars, everywhere there is massive destruction of property, wealth, trade, industry, etc. It completely disturbs the overall aspects of the lives of the people. The main reasons behind wars are egos, jealousy, pride, etc. among the people and the nations. When people aren't ready to settle their disputes peacefully, wars take place. Wars and their results only invite huge loss and destruction.

The term peace means a state of tranquilly, quiet, and harmony; the absence of violence. Peace is a state of complete freedom from disturbance. It refers to the particular time when there is no war or fighting between nations. Peace is possible if the world begins to recognise that wars are unnecessary and against humanity. For this, the people of the entire world have to decide to end war altogether. In this state, they will surely find a way to peaceful coexistence.

Human beings' always prefer peace. The demand for peace is universal. Human beings are calm by nature. War does not provide any evidence of the idea that human beings are fighting animals. Even acts of war don't end humans' innate love for peace.

In the modern world, modern people are threatened by terrible inventions in science and technology. But the real danger is not coming from science but from the war, in which the power of science and technology is misused by people.

Through wars, nations keep themselves powerful and save their nations from others, but wars are the means to instill a fierce sense of aggression and destruction among people.

Thus, all the nations that involve themselves in wars must realise the importance of peace for the welfare of humanity. Everyone wants to have a peaceful existence. Wars never favour anyone. It only knows how to invite a dark future for all. Human beings should avoid war at all costs. The only way to secure our lives and ensure stability in our countries is to practice tolerance and respect for one another. Otherwise, due to wars, we too would have become extinct like the dinosaurs!


b. Responsive youths for peace and prosperity 

Answer:

 Responsive Youths for Peace and Prosperity 

Youths play quite a vital role in shaping varieties of essential things everywhere. They are regarded as the backbone of any nation. They are the real means behind creating and bringing peace and prosperity to any nation.

Peace is the state of being free from any form of human conflict or violence. In a state of peace, all the activities of the nation run smoothly. Peace is a symbol of development and prosperity. It is a good state where human rights are not violated. People can move freely from one place to another without fear. They can do their own business without any hindrance. People respect each other's rights. They are also committed to fulfilling their duty to society. Everyone respects the rules and order. People raise their standard of living by working hard. Peace brings happiness to people. They are involved in development work. Peace helps promote human rights, democratic norms, and values. Peace helps inculcate a feeling of love, trust, tolerance, and brotherhood among the people.

The development process cannot progress without peace and harmony. The economic condition of the nations becomes very bad. The government is not able to provide its basic services to the people. There is always panic in the minds of people. Thus, responsive youths play an important role in the overall development of the country, maintaining a peaceful and harmonious environment everywhere.

In this modern world, we find diversity everywhere, and all of us must accept it and create a balanced and peaceful environment everywhere. Therefore, responsive youths are needed everywhere to create a fine environment for peaceful living. Youth are the major factor in creating harmonious relationships. They can contribute their best in different sectors as they have various innovative ideas. They are quite energetic and enthusiastic about their duties. Being dedicated, they try to give their best and most effective results.

Youths are major as well as inseparable parts of any nation. Youths can play their active roles in creating and promoting peace, tolerance, coexistence, and a non-extremist environment. They can solve various issues regarding disorders and conflicts. They can try to find solutions to different problems. They can support those ideas that encourage ways of reconciliation and conflict resolution.

The youth of a nation are the backbone of any nation. Their unity in development plays quite an important role. They can bring unprecedented changes to societies and nations. In the present time, youths are seen in the top ranks everywhere. Youths are doing their best for the sake of their nations. Their skills have brought prosperity to different nations.

Youth can create strong unity among people. They can initiate various community programmes to educate people in different places. They are even quite ahead in the matter of leading people in different sectors. Thus, responsive youths can play a vital role in making peaceful and harmonious relationships among people of the nations. Through their dedicated efforts, they can change their nations into prosperous ones.


GRAMMAR

Sentence functions

A. Do you know the parts of a sentence? If not, look at this sentence.

The fat man painted the door green last week.

In this sentence:

the fat man → Subject (S)

painted → Verb (V)

the door → Object (O)

green → Complement (C)

last week → Adverbial (A)


B. Divide the following sentences into different parts.

Example:

The man will buy a pen next week.

 The manwill buya pennext week.

 Subject   +   Verb    + Object  + Adverbial


a. The children are playing now.

Answer:

The children = Subject 

are playing = Verb

now = Adverbial (adjunct)


b. Srijana will be reading a story.

Answer:

Srijana = Subject 

will be reading = Verb

a story = Object


c. Bimala is a very beautiful girl.

Answer:

Bimala = Subject

is = Verb (be)

a very beautiful girl = Complement


d. She usually wears glasses.

Answer:

She = Subject 

usually = Adverbial 

wears = Verb

glasses = Object


e. They elected him President.

Answer:

They = Subject 

elected = Verb

him = Object

President = Complement 


f. Rabin is laughing.

Answer:

Rabin = Subject 

is laughing = Verb 


g. He has a big house in Butwal.

Answer:

He = Subject

has = Verb

a big house = Object 

in Butwal = Adverbial 


g. The man who lives next door is a professor.

Answer:

The man = Subject

who lives next door = Complement 

is = Verb

a professor = Object


i. Her uncle has been living in Kathmandu for fifteen years.

Answer:

Her uncle = Subject

has been living = Verb

in Kathmandu = Object

for fifteen years = Adverbial 


j. The girl with long hair asked me a question last week.

Answer:

The girl  with long hair = Subject

asked = Verb

me = Object (indirect)

a question = Object (direct)

last week = Adverbial 


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UNIT 16 CRITICAL THINKING [WHAT IS SOUL?]


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NEB ENGLISH NOTES CLASS 11



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