Unit 9 Democracy and Human Rights | Neb Grade 11 Language Development | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt



Unit 9 Democracy and Human Rights | Neb Grade 11 Language Development | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt
Neb English Support 

Unit 9 Democracy and Human Rights | Neb Grade 11 Language Development | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt

Democracy and Human Rights: Inauguration Speech of Nelson Mandela 


A. Find the words in the text that mean the same as the following. The first letters are given.

a. the system that completely separated black people from white people (a.................)



b. formal objection (p.................)



c. an ethnical group of people (t...............)



d. an act undertaken to achieve a set goal (c............)



e. the formal beginning of any movement (i..................)



f. a strong feeling of excitement and happiness (e....................)



g. being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions (e...............)



B. Find these words in a dictionary and write their meanings as they are used in the text.

a. liberty


the condition of being free from imprisonment, slavery or forced labour.

b. conflict


a clash or disagreement, often violent, between two or more opposing groups or individuals.

c. ideology


doctrine, philosophy, body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group.

d. oppression


The exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.

e. privilege


an especially rare or fortunate opportunity; the good fortune (to do something).

f. dignity


the state of being dignified or worthy of esteem: elevation of mind or character.

g. surrender


To give oneself up into the power of another, especially as a prisoner; to submit or give in.

h. reconciliation


The re-establishment of friendly relations; conciliation, rapprochement.

C. The 'd' or 'ed' in the following verbs have different pronunciation. Put these verbs in the correct box. 

asked, killed, missed, ended, decided, washed, visited, lasted, watched, picked, smiled, fixed, walked, blessed, brushed, stopped, wanted, reached, laughed, enjoyed



asked, missed, washed, watched,

picked, fixed, walked, blessed (v),

brushed, stopped, reached, laughed


killed, smiled


ended, decided

visited, lasted,

blessed (adj).

wanted, enjoyed

D. Put these nouns into the correct box according to the pronunciation of the plural suffix: s/es.

cats, dogs, horses, houses, books, roofs, boys, rooms, girls, noises, shops, trees, pages, babies, benches, classes



cats, books,

roofs, shops


dogs, boys,

rooms, girls,



horses, houses, noises, pages,

babies, benches, classes


a. What were the restrictions imposed on the Blacks in South Africa?


Following were the restrictions imposed on blacks in South Africa:

Racial segregation

Political and economic discrimination

b. Why was Mandela arrested?


Mandela was arrested because he was charged with organising an armed wing of the African National Congress.

c. How did he describe racism and racial oppression?


He described racism and racial oppression as the universal bases of pernicious ideology and practice.

d. Why did he thank all the international guests?


He thanked all the international guests for their participation in his country and for taking possession of the people for their common victory for justice, peace, and human dignity.

e. Why did he think that people in his country had achieved political emancipation?


He thought that people in his country had achieved political emancipation because he had pledged that his people would liberate themselves from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination.

f. What is the main point of Mandela's speech?


The main point of Mandela's speech is that South African people should build a society where there will be justice, peace, rights, and equality for all people.


a. What does Mandela mean when he says - a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world?


When Mandela says 'a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world', he means to refer to his nation, South Africa, as a nation of unity where people of multi-culturalism and the coming-together of people of many different nations come together in a country that was once recognised with the strict division of white and black under the Apartheid regime.

The country of South Africa is figuratively called the "Rainbow Nation" by Nelson Mandela.  Like, there are seven different colours within a rainbow. The metaphor "rainbow nation" is used here to describe the unity of various cultural, racial, or ethnic groups in the country during the post-apartheid period, compared to earlier divisions based on skin colour.

In some South African cultures, the rainbow is a symbol of hope and a bright future. Mandela envisioned a peaceful space where he could build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, could live without fear, with the full right to human dignity in their hearts. He wanted them to stick together and work together like bands of colours in a rainbow. He wished for them to live together, forgetting their vicious and oppressive past.

b. Mandela should have avenged on those who imprisoned him for such a long period. Instead, he followed the path of reconciliation. Why do you think he did so?


Mandela was a quite popular and visionary leader of South Africa who believed much in peace and harmony. He was a follower of the non-violence philosophy. Mandela led his country and people very wisely during his leadership. He mostly promoted reconciliation and met the expectations of all his supporters around the world. He successfully guided a country and his people, even in crucial periods, towards a negotiated settlement. He validated national reconciliation, an idea that he not only promoted in essence but also performed with confidence in reaching former opponents. He stayed in jail for so long. But he has never avenged those people who captured him, tortured his people, and committed terrible atrocities against black people in South Africa.

Mandela was so kind and believed in forgiving others. He had the capacity for forgiveness. He had the belief that the feelings of enmity, avenge, and rivalry only invite destructive results. Such feelings often divide people and create commotion and disorder.

According to him, a division in society hinders harmony among the people. Governing the transition from racial minority rule to a multicultural democracy, he saw national reconciliation as a fundamental act of his presidency.

After examining other colonial African economies worsened by the departure of the white elite, Mandela reassured the white population of South Africa that they were protected and represented in South Africa. He mainly focused his people's attention on the importance of the unity of the people. For them, prosperity was not possible without unity. His main aim was to free all his people from the constant bonds of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination.

c. Why and how have societies struggled with segregation in the world? Do you find any evidence of segregation in your society? Discuss.


The term "segregation" refers to the separation of people (geographically, residentially, or in businesses, public transit, etc.) into racial or other categories (e.g., religion, sex). In other words, it is the social separation of human beings based on any number of factors, including race, ethnicity, or nationality. It is described as a condition of inequality. In the world, we find that most societies struggle with this problem. In the past, racial segregation was one of the most common forms of segregation. Although it is generally forbidden in the present, it is still prevalent in different parts of the world through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it. The concept of racial segregation has appeared in all parts of the world where there are multiracial communities.

The practice of segregation is observed in most societies. The concept of segregation can be intentional or self-imposed. The separation between people only invites a bleak future. Any form of isolation can lead to social, economic, and political tensions. The way people are treated in a biassed manner can lead to disorder. In society, by treating minorities as inferior beings, they avoid the mainstream of society. The concept of segregation always oppresses minorities and denies them civil and political rights. This practice of segregation often hinders fundamental integration and equality. Such practice is habitually expressed, for example, in the rejection of equal opportunities that affect the living conditions of individuals. Persecution has been reported throughout history by women, members of ethnic groups, homosexuals, and mixed religious groups.

In the case of our country, Nepal, no law supports segregation. Here, this concept is regarded as being against the law. The judiciary system doesn't support a segregated society in terms of religion, caste, or ethnicity. However, it is reported in various places due to its innate nature in societies. Yes, I find various evidence of segregation in my society. There are various instances of segregation. We find bias among people in the matter of caste, religion, and race. In our society, people are still categorised according to their caste, religion, and ethnicity. People still have the same treatment as the minority groups. There is a prohibition for minority groups in various places, such as touching the water, marrying, entering temples, etc. People are divided due to their so-called egos.


a. Nepal has topsy-turvy political history. Many changes have been observed in different times. Write a short biography of any Nepali freedom fighter incorporating the changes brought under his/her leadership. 


         The Iron Man: Ganesh Man Singh

Ganesh Man Singh is one of the most popular figures in Nepalese political history. He is regarded as a respected democratic leader in Nepal. We also know him as "An Iron Man." All the Nepalese people still remember him for his outstanding contributions and call him the supreme leader of Nepal.

Ganesh Man Singh was born on November 9, 1915, in Itumbahal, Kathmandu, into an affluent family. He was raised by his grandfather after his father's death.

He studied at Durbar High School until the sixth grade. He was expelled from the school because he didn't respect his fellow students, who were Rana. Later, he went to India and studied there.

After completing his ISC in India, he returned to Nepal and planned to protest against the autocratic rulers of Nepal. In 1940, he joined Nepal's first political party, the Praja Parishad.

Later, he got arrested at the age of 18. He was even sentenced to life imprisonment for his anti-Rana activities, but he escaped from Bhadragol prison in 1944 and fled to India.

Next, he became one of the founding members of the Nepali Congress in 1949. He became a cabinet minister in 1958.

After the late King Mahendra's coup, he was arrested and kept in the Sundrijal military detention camp for eight years. He didn't let his spirits break him. After his release, he advocated for democracy in Nepal. He led the Nepalese democratic movement in the year 1990, which overthrew the panchayat system. He was always above party politics.

He was awarded the United States Peace Run Award in 1990. In addition, he was the first Asian to be awarded the United Nations Human Rights Award. Sadly, he passed away on September 18, 1997. He was the first commoner to receive a state funeral in Nepal.

b. Do you think there is racial/caste related discrimination in our country? Discuss with your friend; write a five-minute speech. 


Yes, I think there is caste-related discrimination in our country. In our country Nepal, people are discriminated against in the name of castes, classes and genders.


Good morning, everyone. Today, I'm feeling so honoured to get a glorious chance to put forward some of my opinions regarding discrimination in our country.

My country, Nepal, is small but beautiful. Here in this Hindu country, many people of different castes, classes, and genders live. There is still a division among people in the matter of their castes and classes. This caste system has divided Hindus into four main categories: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.

In this modern world too, these categories are prevalent in most countries of Eastern traditional societies. In Nepal, Dalit groups are considered inferior castes. People have been practicing this caste's division for many years, although it is against the law of our country. We still find discrimination among Nepali people in the matter of classes and castes. The Dalits of Nepal are mostly biassed and treated in a very bad manner. The people in this category aren't treated well and equally. The people from the upper castes and classes always try to discriminate against them from other groups of people. These forms of discrimination are seen in most societies in our country. The most surprising fact is that educated people are also seen practicing and following these bad practices blindly.

The people of Nepal, no matter how literate or illiterate, know well that these practices are bad and against our laws and constitution, but they keep on doing all these practices for many years. This kind of concept of Nepali people is a great hindrance to the progress and prosperity of the nation.

This kind of discrimination is regarded as punishable, but people keep on doing it. The caste discrimination system was abolished in Nepal in 1963, but we find these practices in many societies.

I think it is not good to create castes and class divisions among people. Being humans, every human being must have the right to live with pride and dignity. The concept of untouchability must be uprooted for the well-being of the entire Nepalese people. This practice of untouchability has separated Nepali people from each other. These practices are good for nothing. We, all Nepalese people, must think about this serious issue for the good of our country. Still practicing all these bad deeds means violating various rights, such as civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights, of human beings.


Modals: should and had better

B. Complete the sentences with should or shouldn't. Use one of these verbs.

           [drink, visit, leave, roam, quit]

a. You have really done a wonderful job. I recommend you...............it.


You have really done a wonderful job. I recommend you shouldn't quit it.

b. That's a very dangerous area. Tourists...............there.


That's a very dangerous area. Tourists shouldn't visit there.

c. I'm going to be late. Do you think I..........now?


I'm going to be late. Do you think I should leave now?

d. Children..........sugary drinks. It's not very healthy.


Children shouldn't drink sugary drinks. It's not very healthy.

e. I have lots of homework. I......here and there today.


I have lots of homework. I shouldn't roam here and there today.

C. Put in had better or should.

a. I think you.............learn English to enroll a university course.


I think you should learn English to enroll a university course.

b. It's a great film. You...........go and see it.


It's a great film. You should go and see it.

c. I have to meet my friend in ten minutes. I........go now or I'Il be late.


I have to meet my friend in ten minutes. I had better go now or I'l be late.

d. These biscuits are delicious. You.........try one.


These biscuits are delicious. You should try one.

e. We................get to the airport by 2 pm or else we may miss the flight.


We had better get to the airport by 2 pm or else we may miss the flight.

f. When people are driving, they.............keep their eyes on the road.


When people are driving, they should keep their eyes on the road.

g. I...............get up early tomorrow. I've got a lot to do.


I should get up early tomorrow. I've got a lot to do.




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