Unit 7 Ecology and Development | Foresters without Diplomas | Language Development Unit 7 | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt



NEB Grade 11 Unit 7 Ecology and Development | Foresters without Diplomas | Language Development | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt
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NEB Grade 11 Unit 7 Ecology and Development | Foresters without Diplomas | Language Development | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt

Ecology and Development: Foresters without Diplomas

A. Match the words with their meanings.

a. constituency 》iv. electoral district

b. pursue 》 ii. to follow in an effort to overtake or capture

c. infiltrate 》to enter or gain access to (an organization, place, etc.) secretly and gradually

d. nomadic 》 ii. living the life of roaming

e. anatomy 》vi. art of studying the different parts of any organized body

f. subversive 》i. seeking or intended to overthrow an established system or institution


Answer these questions.

a. What did Maathai decide to do for the community?


Maathai decided to create various types of jobs for the community.

b. Mention the problems faced by women in Kenya.


Following were the problems faced by women in Kenya:

Problems with firewood

Problems of malnutrition

Lack of food and adequate water

Unemployment and soil erosion.

c. Why did the speaker go to the women to talk about planting trees?


The speaker went to the women to talk about planting trees to overcome a variety of problems facing Kenyan women. The speaker found Kenyan women most affected by the problems of firewood, malnutrition, lack of food and adequate water, unemployment, and soil erosion. They were even concerned about children and the future.

d. What is the most important achievement of the movement described in the text?


The most important achievement of the movement described in the text is the millions of tree plantations in Kenya. Apart from this, Kenyan women benefited from that movement. The women had become independent, acquired knowledge and techniques, and become empowered.

d. Why were the foresters' ways not helpful to the women for planting trees?


The foresters' ways were not helpful to the women for planting trees because they have diplomas and complicated ways of dealing with a very simple thing like looking for seeds and planting trees.

e. When and how did she start The Green Belt Movement?


She started the Green Belt Movement on World Environment Day on June 5, 1977, by planting the first seven trees.

f. Why do the donors want to provide money to the women?


The donors want to provide money to the women because the women's efforts are producing results.

g. What happened when the speaker criticized the political leadership?


When the speaker criticised the political leadership, she was portrayed as subversive.

h. Mention the agencies that supported her movement.


The agencies that supported her movement are as follows:

▪︎ The United Nations Development Fund for Women

▪︎ The Danish Voluntary Fund

▪︎ The Norwegian Agency for International Development

▪︎ The African Development Foundation


a. Do you think that the title "Foresters without Diplomas" is suitable to the essay? How?


Yes, I think the title "Foresters without Diplomas" is suitable for the essay. Here we find the entire essay revolves around the efforts made by the women in Kenya to make "The Green Belt Movement successful".

Here in this essay, the essayist and his team were the first to call foresters to show the women the way they (foresters) planted trees. The foresters proved to be very problematic, as they had diplomas. They had difficult ways of dealing with simple things like finding seeds and planting trees. In the end, the essayist and her team taught all the helping women how to do things using their common sense, and finally, all the women did it in a very fine manner. The women were able to look for seeds in the neighbourhood and learned to recognise when the seeds had sprouted when they fell to the ground. Women did not have to wait for anyone to plant trees. They kept on doing their plantation work along with teaching each other. Thus, the women are actually foresters without diplomas. The essay has focused on these women's excellent tasks; they are given the title of foresters without diplomas.

b. Can a person make a difference in society? Discuss with an example from a person who has made a difference in your society.


Yes, a person can make a difference in society. This task is too difficult to accomplish, but not impossible either. If we try our best for the well-being of our society with our dedication, we can achieve much better results in achieving our goals. A lot of effort as well as struggle is needed to make a difference in society. To make a difference in our society, it is very necessary for all of us to be united. There are various essential factors that are needed to make our society better. If a person doesn't seek his or her personal benefits and works with dedication and determination, he or she can make it possible. I have known a reputed person from my society who has done a lot for the betterment of our society and has become a popular figure among the people.

Mr. Ramesh, a person from a very poor family background, is the mayor of our municipality. He is quite a modest and simple person. He is quite a popular person in our municipality. In his past days, he struggled a lot for his survival and education. He had completed his secondary-level education at our government-based school. Later, he joined college and involved himself in various political and social works. He kept raising his voice for poor and unemployed people. He supported helpless kids and women from our different societies. His mother always supported him. He began to get people's support. He completed his bachelor's degree and even became successful enough to be recognised by many people. He raised his voice against corruption most of the time. During the time of the election, he was successful in achieving far more votes and becoming the mayor of our municipality.

After becoming mayor, he has brought unprecedented changes to our municipality's different societies. People are too happy with him. He has brought a variety of opportunities for unemployed and poor people. Due to him, there is no single complaint from the people's side. Our societies are packed with a variety of facilities. He keeps on meeting people from different societies and asking about their problems most of the time. Mr. Ramesh is a real hero who has made a difference in our societies. I also want to be a person like him.


Personal letters

Study the given letter and underline the sender's address, date, greeting and complimentary close.

27 Barnes Avenue, London
March 1st, 2020

Dear Mrs. MacDonald,

As you know, we have been in the flat now for six months. We like it, but I'm afraid there are a few problems.

First, a good deal of the furniture is rather old. The armchairs, for example, are in bad condition and so is the big table where we eat. Could you please replace these items?

Secondly, the flat is extremely cold in winter. The central heating doesn't work very well and we have to use electric fires. And they are expensive, of course. Part of the problem is the windows. They don't fit very well, so they let the wind in.

Finally, there's the kitchen. It really does need painting. We are quite prepared to do the work ourselves if you pay for the paint.

Can you possibly come and look at the flat yourself? I'm sure you will agree with us. In any case, please let us know about these things as soon as possible.

 Yours sincerely,
 Sandra Shaw

B. Suppose you are MacDonald. Write a reply to Sandra Shaw. 

Brentford End, London
March 17, 2020
Dear Sandra Shaw,
We are really sorry to learn about your inconvenience in our home. We are really very glad that you have been taking care of our house for the last six months. We were carefree, as there was no message from your side in these months.
I got your letter yesterday morning. I will soon visit you and try my best to satisfy you. Yes, I know that you are facing problems. The old armchairs, dining table, central heating, windows, kitchen's painting, etc. tasks will be done sooner.
I will come there along with my wife and try my best to satisfy you. God bless. Stay healthy and happy.
Yours Sincerely,

C. Write an essay on 'The Community Forest in Nepal'. Describe how these community forests have contributed to maintain ecology in our environment.

           The Community Forest in Nepal
The community forestry programme is related to forest conservation and management. It is one of the successful participatory approaches that deal with the conversation about forests in Nepal. This programme has provided authority to the communities, especially to manage forests' resources at a local level. The income and benefits generated by the community forests are used by the community people to preserve the forests and their resources. 
The community forests of Nepal are in a good state. In the past, people used to cut trees randomly for cultivation, settlement, and timber. People used to take their domestic animals to the jungle for grazing. In this way, the condition of the forests was not good. But after handing over forests to the locals as well as at community levels, the condition of the forests has improved. In the present time, Nepali forests are well-cared for and preserved.
This approach to community forestry has allowed the user groups to develop decision-making abilities within the community regarding forest resources. The available resources within the forests are used by the locals to generate income by selling them. The programme has improved and encouraged community development activities that have a direct effect on lower-income households. Due to this programme, people have jobs and even a fine chance to generate a proper income for their survival.
Community forestry has a great significance and role in biodiversity conservation in Nepal. In the present time, most trees are even seen growing in those barren lands, which are desolate as well as abandoned. This greenery everywhere has minimised the chance of natural disasters like landslides, soil erosion, etc. Due to community forestry management, biomass, carbon stock, and soil organic carbon have increased greatly. This approach has created and enhanced wildlife habitats and water quality. Now, we find an increase in the number of wild animals and birds.
In the matter of community-based forest management, Nepal stands as one of the leaders. This community forestry programme has made direct progress in preventing environmental degradation and, to some extent, has uplifted the economic condition of marginalised people in the community. To make the programme much more successful and effective, conservation and utilisation of the forests should be socially binding and blend with technical aspects.


Transitive, Intransitive and Linking Verbs

A. Study the examples.

A couple bought a couple of tickets for their honeymoon.

The car stopped suddenly.

All the children seem satisfied with their exam result.

Here bought is a transitive verb, stopped an intransitive verb and seem a linking verb.

B. What is the difference among transitive, intransitive and linking verbs? Give examples of each.


Transitive verb: A transitive verb is a verb that has an object.

Examples of transitive verb:

Mother baked the cake.

Who made this mess?

Intransitive verb: An intransitive verb is a verb that doesn't have an object.

Examples of intransitive verb:

We talked. 

Linking verb: A linking verb is a verb that acts as an equal sign, the subject is or becomes the object.

Examples of linking verb:

Mary is my sister. (Mary = sister)

Mary's feet were cold. (feet = cold)

C. Underline the verb in each sentence and write whether it is transitive, intransitive or linking.

a. His father looks handsome.


His father looks handsome.

Linking verb

b. Bhawana drinks milk every day.


Bhawana drinks milk every day. Transitive verb

c. He became a watchman.


He became a watchman.

Linking verb

d. This bread smells good.


This bread smells good.

Linking verb

e. The dog barked loudly.


The dog barked loudly.

Intransitive verb

f. He chased the dog.


He chased the dog.

Tranisitive verb

g. My sister swims fast.


My sister swims fast.

Intransitive verb

h. He painted a picture.


He painted a picture.

Transitive verb

i. Radhika always asks questions.


Radhika always asks questions.

Transitive verb

j. Anjana has a long hair.


Anjana has a long hair. 

Linking verb

k. The hungry lion roars.


The hungry lion roars

Intransitive verb

k. He tried again and again.


He tried again and again. 

Intransitive verb

m. The weather is hot.


The weather is hot. 

Linking verb

m. Owls hide in the daytime.


Owls hide in the daytime. 

Intransitive verb





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