Unit 14 Power and Politics | Napoleon Bonaparte | Language Development Class 11 | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt

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Unit 14 Power and Politics | Napoleon Bonaparte | Language Development Class 11 | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt
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Unit 14 Power and Politics | Napoleon Bonaparte | Language Development Class 11 | Compulsory English by Suraj Bhatt


Power and Politics: Napoleon Bonaparte 


BEFORE YOU READ

Discuss these questions with your partner.

a. Name some warriors who fought for your country. 

Answer:

Some warriors who fought for my country are as follows:

King Prithivi Narayan Shah

Amar Singh Thapa

Bhimsen Thapa

Sardar Bhakti Thapa Chettri

Balbhadra Kunwar


b Mention the names of any five famous leaders in the world? Also describe their contributions to their countries. 

Answer: 

The names of five famous leaders in the world and their contributions to their countries are as follows:


1. Winston Churchill:

A famous leader of great Britain who led his country from the brink of defeat to victory during World War II.


2. Abraham Lincoln:

Known as the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln was a revolutionary leader who ignited the ‘free nation’ spirit in the USA. He was an award-winning lawyer who later on chose the path of politics. Words like democracy, liberty, equal rights, etc are often used as synonyms to his name due to his inspirational journey of leading the country to victory in the Civil War. 


3. Mahatma Gandhi:

Mahatma Gandhi was born in an ordinary Indian family in Gujrat, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a rebellious leader of a multitude of protests that were aimed to liberate India. Moments like Civil Disobedience, Dandi March, Quit India were his brainchild and cite his glory. Later on, he was awarded the title of ‘Father of the Nation’. 


4. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.:

He was globally renowned personality especially for his speech called ‘I Have a Dream’ in Washington, He had done a lot for black people's lives in America. He continued his struggles against white Americans through the Civil Rights Movement for the Afro-Americans. He was a firm believer in Christianity, hence, thoroughly followed non-violence.


5. Nepoleon Bonaparte:

Nepoleon Bonaparte was quite an important figure during the great French Revolution. He was a reputed French military leader who afterward became a popular politician. He has been profoundly remembered as the Emperor of France as well as his significant role in the Napoleonic wars.


c. Guess the meaning of the words: 

statesman, leader, warrior, revolution, emperor, empire, guerilla 

Answer: 

statesman: 

a man who is a leader in national or international affairs.


leader:

any person that leads or directs


Warrior: 

a person who is actively engaged in battle, conflict or warfare; a soldier or combatant.


revolution:

a political upheaval in a government or nation state characterized by great change.


emperor:

the male monarch or ruler of an empire.


empire:

a political unit, typically having an extensive territory or comprising a number of territories or nations (especially one comprising one or more kingdoms) and ruled by a single supreme authority.


guerilla: 

a soldier in a small independent group, fighting against the government or regular forces by surprise raids.


WAYS WITH WORDS

A. Choose the correct meaning of the underlined word.

a. Many portraits of Napoleon show him with his right hand placed inside his coat.

i. shape ii. hairstyle  iii. sketch  iv. movement

Answer:

sketch


b. Napoleon won one victory after another, defeating the Austrians in eighteen battles.

i. beating  ii. joining  iii. fighting  iv. directing

Answer:

beating


c. Portrait painters thought this pose made men look more dignified.

i. good-looking  ii. young  iii. intelligent iv. energetic

Answer:

good-looking


d. They announced France a republic.

i. officially declared  ii. informally decided  iii. put into practice  iv. voted into law

Answer:

officially declared


e. Napoleon conquered Austria in 1805.

i. lost  ii. tried to control  iii. triumphed over  iv. attacked

Answer:

triumphed over


f. There was no place to house his soldiers in the bitter Russian winter.

i. difficult  ii. cold  iii. dark  iv. empty

Answer:

cold


g. Napoleon was humiliated when he was defeated.

i. tortured  ii. punished  iii. confused  iv. shamed

Answer:

shamed


B. Guess the meanings to these words from the text and make sentences of your own.

1. violent

Answer:

Meaning:

involving extreme force or motion.

Sentence:

a violent wind ripped the branch from the tree.


2. execute

Answer:

Meaning:

to kill as punishment for capital crimes.

Sentence:

He has been executed for his crime of murder.


3. ancient

Answer:

Meaning:

existent or occurring in time long past, usually in remote ages; belonging to or associated with antiquity; old, as opposed to modern.

Sentence:

Mr. John thinks in a very ancient way.


4. alliance

Answer:

Meaning:

The act of allying or uniting.

Sentence:

They finally agreed for their alliance. 


5. brilliant

Answer:

Meaning:

highly intelligent.

Sentence:

He is brilliant at this subject. 


6. genius 

Answer:

Meaning:

someone possessing extraordinary intelligence or skill; especially somebody who has demonstrated this by a creative or original work in science, music, art etc.

Sentence:

He is a genius man.


7. consul

Answer:

Meaning:

an official appointed by a state to live in a foreign city and protect the state's citizens and interests there.

Sentence:

My uncle has been elected as a consul in Dubai.


8. invading

Answer:

Meaning:

To enter by force in order to conquer.

Sentence:

Their force is slowly invading the territory of Pakistan. 


COMPREHENSION 

Answer these questions.

a. Where was Napoleon from?

Answer:

Napoleon was from France. 


b. Why did poor and middle-class people declare France a republic?

Answer:

Poor and middle-class people declared France a republic because they were tired of paying heavy taxes for the luxury of the king and his nobles.


c. When did Napoleon declare himself emperor of France?

Answer:

Napoleon declared himself emperor of France in the year 1804.


d. What did he do when he ruled France?

Answer: 

He ruled wisely and well. During his rule, he did the following things:

He restored law and order after the revolution. He improved the laws in France.

He reorganised the French government and the Bank of France.

He built many fine roads and improved the old ones.

He turned Paris into a beautiful city with wide streets, fine bridges, and beautiful buildings and monuments, such as the Arc de Triomphe.


e. Which countries did he rule when he was the emperor?

Answer:

When he was the emperor, he conquered the huge Austrian Empire and ruled three countries like Italy, Switzerland, and Germany.


f. What was the main cause of his destruction?

Answer:

His attempt at invading Russia was the main cause of his destruction.


g. How did his rule as emperor end in Europe?

Answer:

His rule as emperor ended in Europe as the Europeans gathered their armies against him. He was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.


h. How could Napoleon have been an even greater ruler?

Answer:

Napoleon could have been an even greater ruler if he had not been driven by his love of power. His love of power led him towards his downfall.


CRITICAL THINKING

a. What can be the qualities of a great leader? Can a great leader remain in power for long in a country? Discuss. 

Answer:

Leaders are those who have the authority to lead or direct the overall matters of governance. They are the real heroes who lead countries and people into prosperous states. They are the backbone of any nation. They are the people who have full authority to shape, plan, and execute development and other activities. Their contributions can bring unprecedented developments to nations, communities, and institutions.

No, a great leader can't stay in power for long in a country. There are a variety of reasons behind this statement. As a human, a leader is also connected to mistakes. With time, he or she also commits mistakes. It is not necessary that a leader always move on with his or her right decisions. Sometimes, he or she flows along with his or her wrong decisions, which the citizens of the country have to bear. After wrong decisions from the leader, citizens of the country start criticising him or her for his or her mistakes. Greatness is just a personal treat. This is not forever. It is only momentary.

We can take an example from Napoleon Bonaparte's life. He was the man who remained a great leader for a long time, but his one mistake of invading Russia turned him into a common man. Napoleon would even have had a great rule for a long time if he hadn't been inspired by his love of power. A great leader can have various qualities, which are as follows:

 

Integrity

vision

Ability to delegate

Inspiration

Communication

Responsibility

Self-awareness

Gratitude and agility

Influence

Empathy

Courage

Respect


b. The 16th president of the USA, Abraham Lincoln said democracy is government of the people for the people and by the people. Do you think it is perfectly applicable in the present context of Nepal? Explain. 

Answer:

Abraham Lincoln, the greatest leader as well as the 16th president of the USA, once said that democracy is the government of the people, for the people, and by the people. His statement was absolutely correct. In the present context of Nepal, I don't think it is perfectly applicable. The democracy of Nepal is in its initial stages. Leaders, as well as citizens of Nepal, are in the process of practicing it. As we all know, Nepal is a federal democratic republic. Democracy is quite useful and important for all. It is a political movement that is essential for developing countries like Nepal.

In a democratic system, citizens of the country are given more priority. They are given different opportunities. Democracy has many benefits. In a democracy, there are always ways to resolve different views and conflicts peacefully. We find respect for human dignity in democracy. People have the freedom to act, speak, and think freely (as long as it does not stop others from doing the same). All citizens are equal before the law. We found a safe and secure community. There is a fine government that is efficient, transparent, responsive, and accountable to citizens. Citizens have the ability to hold elected representatives accountable.

In Nepal, we have a democratic system of governance. Due to this system of governance, Nepali people's lifestyles and expectations are changing. In this country, people are enjoying their various rights. They are experiencing a variety of new things in their lives. In the context of Nepal, people are getting the fruits of these rights at a very slow pace. People are still learning a variety of new things. Things are at an improving stage right now. Along with these new things, there are various challenges to democracy in Nepal.

Democratic norms and values depend on the proper function of constitutional organs and governmental institutions. But they have been crippled by a certain group of people. Everywhere we go, we find corruption. Taking and giving bribes seem to be very common among people. Political leaders are going in the wrong direction and directing people down the wrong paths. Nepalese people have never experienced a responsible, accountable government up until now. There is the concept of nepotism and favouritism in government institutions.

There are different things prevalent in Nepal that need essential change. If these things aren't considered, the democratic system and its future will suffer disastrous results.


WRITING 

a. Write an essay on Power and Politics in about 500 words.

Answer:

             Essay on Power and Politics 

The meanings of the term "power" are different in different contexts. The social definition of power is the ability to coerce, influence, or control. Similarly, economic power is defined as the ability of an individual, group, or country to improve its financial situation. If we define it from a political perspective, we can define power as the ability of politicians, leaders, and others to influence policy in a government, thereby controlling what decisions people and countries make. Political power is exercised through various power dynamics between political parties, social classes, and ethnic groups in all nations throughout the world.

The word "power" is defined as the ability of a person to influence others. It can influence the different actions, beliefs, conduct, etc. of people. It is a process of forming ties between individuals and political parties.

On the other hand, the word "politics" refers to the methodology and activities associated with running a government, an organisation, or a movement. It is considered the main process for influencing the various parameters of power. It is the behaviour of self-serving individuals that undermines the legitimate system of influence.

Both power and politics are needed to run any organisation properly. With the proper distribution of power, any organisation functions smoothly. There must be a perfect balance between power and politics in any sector. In every sector, we find political pressures and struggle for power. People keep on using these aspects for their own benefit. People sometimes bear huge losses due to their mistakes in applying their power and involving their politics. While applying any one of these aspects, one needs to follow proper guidelines. Sometimes this mixed application might have unexpected consequences for all. The conditions might turn the other way, and there is the possibility of a clash between people. In applying these important aspects, there should be a perfect decision. Random decisions can have disastrous consequences.

The concept of politics as well as political behaviour has been part of people's lives since ancient times. No one can stay away from this concept. Everyone is involved in politics, knowingly or unknowingly. Politics is believed to be an integral part of human beings' lives. Politics has played a vital role in shaping this world. In the present world, everyone is rushing around for the sake of their survival. Work and money have become quite essential for all. In most working places, there is competition between people to upgrade their status. The concept of politics is always immersed in places where various competitions are held among people or various demands are placed before people. We find various political pressing factors and power battles practically. There should be suitable rules for the utilisation of power and politics. These rules should be clear; otherwise, people will react quite badly to the situation.

Therefore, both aspects are essentially needed in any sector. The most important thing is its application. Both power and politics should be for the well-being of all of humanity. It shouldn't be applied to bring disastrous consequences.


b. Write a couple of paragraphs about a national hero who fought bravely in the Anglo-Nepal War.

Answer:

     A National Hero: Bir Balbhadra Kunwar

Bir Balabhadra Kunwar was a national hero and freedom fighter in Nepal. He served as a captain of the Royal Nepalese Army (Gorkhali Sena) during the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–1816. He was the commander of the Gorkhali army at the Battle of Nalpani outside Dehradun (now in India) in 1814. He was born in Bhanwarkot, Dhulikhel, to Chandra Bir Kunwar. He was also the nephew of Kazi Bhimsen Thapa, the first Prime Minister of Nepal. Their ancestors also have a history of serving the Shah kings.
 
Bir Balabhadra Kunwar joined the army at an early age, following his family traditions. He had a highly distinguished career in the Gorkhali army. During the war, he was given the responsibility of defending the area of Dehradun; however, realising that he could not defend the city, he withdrew to the strategic hill fort of Khalanga with an army strength of 600, including women and children. His army had to fight 3000–3500 soldiers of the British East India Company. Recognising his immense bravery and skill, the British offered him to leave Nepal or surrender and join the British army as governor of western Garhwal; however, his patriotism towards his country made him decline the offer.
 
In October 1814, Major General Sir Rollo Gillespie led a troop of the British army to attack Nepali territory. He had advanced along with 3,500 troops and eleven pieces of cannon to occupy Nepali territories situated between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in the Gharwal and Kumaon regions. Those regions were occupied by the Nepali forces. Bir Balbhadra Kunwar had maintained his position at Nalapani Fort, a 400-cubit-high hill situated north-east of Dehradun. A great battle took place between the two troops at Nalapani (the Battle of Nalapani), where the British withdrew to Dehradun in defeat. On October 31, another battle was fought again, in which General Gillespie and Colonel Alice lost their lives. Realising that they could not get victory over the Gorkhali troops through battle technique, the British troops cut off the water supply to the fort, which resulted in the Gorkhali troops leaving the fort. The war ended only after the Treaty of Sugauli was signed, and because of this, Nepal lost much of its territory. However, that battle established the warrior reputation of the Gorkhalis, winning them admiration from their enemies. Captain Bir Balbhadra, along with his 600 armies, had held against the British and native troops for a month, and even with only 70 survivors remaining, he had refused to surrender.
 
In Nalapani, the British had constructed two small obelisks. One was made in honour of Gillespie, and another was dedicated to Gorkhali troops with the inscription ‘Our brave adversary Bul Buddur and his gallant men’. That particular war made Balbhadra a national hero, earning him the reputation of the Great Warriors for the Gorkhalis. Later, he went to Lahore (the capital of Punjab) and joined the new regiment formed by Sikh Maharajah and King Ranjit Singh of Punjab as the general and commander of the new ‘Lahure’ regiment, consisting entirely of Gorkhali troops.
 
Balbhadra Kunwar was killed during the war between Sikhs and Afghans in 1822 by Afghan artillery in Naushera, in the Peshwar region of Afghanistan.


GRAMMAR 

May, Might, Must, Can’t

A. Study the following sentences.

a. She may/might be in France.

b. You've had a long journey. You must be tired.

c. Niraj can't be in Gorkha - I saw him this morning.

We use may or might to talk about the possibility of something in the present or in the future.

We use must and can’t to express certainty in the present.


B. Fill in the blanks with may, must or can't.

a. Matthew..........be at home. I can see his bike in front of his home.

Answer:

Matthew must be at home. I can see his bike in front of his home.


b. They..........be coming tomorrow.

Answer:

They may be coming tomorrow.


c. She........speak French very well. She's only lived in Paris for two weeks.

Answer:

She can't speak French very well. She's only lived in Paris for two weeks.


d. My key is not in my pocket or on my desk so it............be in the drawer.

Answer:

My key is not in my pocket or on my desk so it must be in the drawer.


e. I saw him yesterday. He............be abroad.

Answer:

I saw him yesterday. He can't be abroad.


f. You got the job? That's great. You........be very delighted.

Answer:

You got the job? That's great. You must be very delighted.


g. I..........finish it by tomorrow if I stay at work all night, but I'm not sure.

Answer:

I may finish it by tomorrow if I stay at work all night, but ΔΎ'm not Sure.


h. Somebody is knocking on the door. It..........be Sabina- she promised to come today.

Answer:

Somebody is knocking on the door. It must be Sabina - she promised to come today.


C. Rewrite the following sentences using may/might, must or can't.

a. I'm sure he's not going to the cinema today.

Answer:

He can't be going to the cinema today.


b. Perhaps she knows the answer.

Answer:

She may know the answer.


c. I'm sure he has a car.

Answer:

He must have a car.


d. I doubt if it rains later on.

Answer:

It may rain later on.


e. Perhaps she wants to be alone.

Answer:

She may want to be alone.


f. I'm sure Harina is in her office.

Answer:

Harina must be in her office.


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Read πŸ‘‰ Detailed Grammar: Rules of Must | Can't | May | Might (The Easiest Way to Learn)


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UNIT 15 WAR AND PEACE [SHALL THERE BE PEACE?]


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