Word Classes ( Parts of Speech) | Grammar Unit 1 | Compulsory English Class 11 Neb English Support by Suraj Bhatt



Word Classes ( Parts of Speech) | Grammar Unit 1 | Compulsory English Class 11 Neb English Support by Suraj Bhatt
Neb English Support 

Word Classes ( Parts of Speech) Grammar Unit 1 Compulsory English Class 11 Neb English Support by Suraj Bhatt

Word Classes

Word Classes (Parts of Speech)

Modern grammar generally recognizes four major word classes (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs) and five other word classes (determiners, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections), totalling nine-word classes (or parts of speech). But note that some grammarians use different systems and may recognize eight or ten different word classes.


Verbs are actions or state words such as run, work, study, be, seem


Nouns are words for people, places or things such as mother, city, Rome, car, dog


Adjectives are words that describe a noun, such as kind, clever, expensive


Adverbs are words that modify a verb, adjective, or other adverbs, such as: quickly, behind, ever, badly, away, generally, completely


Prepositions are words that usually occur in front of a noun or pronoun and express a relation to another word or element, such as: after, below, near, plus, round, from


Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns, such as I, you, his, this, that, mine, yours, who, what


Interjections have no grammatical value - words such as: ah, hey, oh, ouch, um, well


A conjunction that is also called a connectives, is a word such as and, because, but, for, if, or, and when. Conjunctions are mostly used to connect phrases, clauses, and sentences. There are two main kinds of conjunction which are known as coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.



A determiner is a word that especially introduces a noun, such as a/antheeverythisthose, or many (as in a dog, the dog, this dog, those dogs, every dog, many dogs). 

The determiner 'the' is sometimes known as the definite article and the determiner 'a' (or an) as the indefinite article

Textbook's Solution:

Word Classes

A. Word class refers to the category of words of similar form or function. Another name of word class is a parts of speech. In the text below, certain words are underlined. While you read, try to identify which word class they belong to. 

Most governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions in an attempt to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. These nationwide closures are impacting over 60% of the world’s student population. Some 1 billion students and youth across the planet are affected by school and university closures due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Several other countries have implemented localized closures impacting millions of additional learners. UNESCO is supporting countries in their efforts to mitigate the immediate impact of school closures, particularly for more vulnerable and disadvantaged communities, and to facilitate the continuity of education for all through remote learning.

The Global Education Coalition launched by UNESCO seeks to facilitate inclusive learning opportunities for children and youth during this period of sudden and unprecedented educational disruption. Investment in remote learning should both mitigate the immediate disruption caused by COVID-19 and establish approaches to develop more open and flexible education systems for the future. The Global Coalition members and prospective members are encouraged to pledge for the protection of learners’ personal information, privacy and security. In the text, the underlined words belong to different word classes or parts of speech.

governments: noun

temporarily: adverb

affected: verb

and: conjunction

in: preposition

immediate: adjective

the: determiner

B. Classify the underlined words into different word classes.

a. The man who is wearing glasses is my uncle’s friend.


who: pronoun 

wearing: verb

my: determiner 

b. I bought a round table in the supermarket.


round: adjective 

the: determiner 

c. Alas, she is dead.


Alas: exclamation 

is: verb

d. Hari works very hard all the time but his wife is very lazy.


works: verb

hard: adverb 

but: conjunction 

wife: noun

very: adverb 

e. I have never been to Japan.


never: adverb

C. Read a paragraph of an English newspaper and make a list of about 20 words. Categorize them into different ‘Word classes’. You can refer to the grammar book for help.


Several cases of dengue have been detected in Lalitpur Metropolitan City. 

At least 13 of all cases of dengue infection in the Valley have been reported from Lalitpur.

“We have alerted all agencies concerned about the risk of the spread and asked them to take preventive measures.”

Several: determiner 

of: preposition 

detected: verb

Lalitpur: noun

least: determiner 

all: determiner 

cases: noun

dengue: noun

in: preposition 

the: determiner 

reported: verb

concerned: verb

risk: noun

spread: noun

and: conjunction 

them: pronoun

take: verb

preventive: adjective 

measures: noun 



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